Few issues could make somebody really feel fairly as ready or assured within the kitchen as a knife that’s as lovely as it’s useful. For me, Damascus knives are the right illustration of this: their distinct look is definitely an indication of one thing particular. However the extra Damascus knives I’ve used, the extra questions I’ve had: What really units them aside? Do the contrasting patterns actually contribute something to the knives, and the way do they get there within the first place? Most significantly, are they value the additional price? 

Once I first dove into this matter, I anticipated a fast look throughout the web would provide me with all the data I wanted. I’d learn up on the approach, possibly watch a couple of clips, and bada bing, bada increase, I’d have my solutions. However after talking with an knowledgeable, tons of studying, and watching extra movies than I care to confess, I discovered a trove of historical past and craftsmanship that has added as much as a shocking conclusion of what makes Damascus particular.

A Temporary Historical past of Damascus Metal

Spoiler: Nearly none of our fashionable knives labeled as Damascus are true Damascus-style blades. To grasp why, we should first dip our toes into slightly metallurgical historical past. I’m neither a historian nor a metallurgist—however for my fellow knife nerds, I’ve put collectively what I’ve realized right into a (very) abridged background.

Initially, Damascus referred to swords comprised of a high-carbon metal alloy known as wootz, which was first created in South India round two thousand years in the past. It got here from a game-changing approach of mixing wrought iron and high-carbon supplies (like charcoal, forged iron, or bits of wooden and leaves) inside a closed crucible vessel, leading to metal with simply the correct amount of carbon to make it robust but versatile.

Wootz was, briefly, a Very Massive Deal. Not like weapons cast from different steels of the time, which simply chipped, shattered, or bent, blades made with high-carbon crucible metal have been resilient and will retain a pointy edge (traits we nonetheless worth in our carbon metal kitchen knives at the moment). The presence of hint components like vanadium and the formation of carbon compounds known as carbides in wootz metal additionally created a definite, banded sample that seemed like swirling water throughout the floor of the metallic. This styling made wootz (and something comprised of it) immediately recognizable.

Though wootz was produced primarily in Central and South Asia, the prized Damascus blades cast from it have been traded all through the area and into the Center East and Europe starting within the Center Ages. It’s not recognized precisely why they got here to be often known as “Damascus,” but it surely might have been derived from the Arabic phrase for water (based mostly on their patterns) or named after a famend swordmaker. Most sources level at the least partly to Damascus, Syria, because the hub the place many of those blades have been cast and/or traded through the Silk Street.

In studying about this historical past, I got here throughout many sources calling true Damascus a secret misplaced to time, however this appeared to be a hasty and deceptive conclusion. No single issue contributed solely to the decline of wootz and Damascus manufacturing. Developments in metalworking, the depletion of essential ore supplies, and Genghis Khan’s conquests inflicting adjustments in commerce availability (in addition to a major lack of sensible data) all might have performed a component. When Europeans began replicating crucible metal for themselves a few hundred years later, there have been sufficient technological shifts—like higher furnaces and extra useful metal alloys—that the type was already much less related (or obligatory).

How Are Damascus Knives Made Right now?

Critical Eats / Daniel Gritzer

Nowadays, Damascus refers extra to the aesthetic of a knife moderately than the standard or sort of metallic it’s comprised of. “When individuals consider Damascus, they consider pattern-welded metal,” says Craig Area, co-owner of Carbon Knife Co. in Denver. Sample welding includes stacking layers of separate alloys on prime of one another, then heating and hammering them collectively in a course of known as forge welding. This technique is far more labor-intensive than forging knives from single-steel bars or stamping blades from metallic sheets (as many international producers do at the moment).

“Most individuals will manipulate [the layers] and fold them in numerous instructions to create completely different patterns,” Area explains. By doing so, knifemakers can produce a rippling water look much like the unique Damascus blades, therefore the shared title. Trendy Damascus goes far past simply replicating the look of wootz, although. The type has expanded to incorporate an enormous array of designs that may range from finely feathered layers to daring raindrop motifs and past. “It’s restricted by your approach, the steels you’re utilizing, and your abilities, however there are an infinite quantity of patterns,” says Area. 

Damascus knives could be comprised of chrome steel, high-carbon metal, or a mix. Like all high-quality knife (Damascus or in any other case), producers will usually select actual metal alloys (which might embrace additions like vanadium, molybdenum, or nickel) to create particular designs and additional hone the general hardness, sturdiness, and suppleness of the knife.

What Makes Damascus Metal Knives Particular, and Are They Price It?

Critical Eats / Ashlee Redger

The query of what makes Damascus knives particular is an advanced one as a result of, nicely, Damascus isn’t only one factor. Even when we put the historic title swap apart and focus solely on up to date pattern-welded Damascus, every knife can have a novel look and efficiency relying on the forms of layers it has and even the approach with which they have been folded. Some bladesmiths spend days hand-forging their chosen alloys collectively for every knife, whereas different producers begin from premade billets. Some blades could be absolutely laminated all through whereas others have a tougher, single-alloy core with stratified cladding on prime. “Damascus doesn’t contribute to something however appears to be like in [the latter]…but it surely positively appears to be like quite a bit cooler,” Area says.

In the end, trying nice is maybe the best defining characteristic of Damascus knives. The reality is that pattern-forged knives are solely as robust or sturdy because the alloys they’re comprised of, and layering separate supplies collectively doesn’t assure a greater high quality knife than one comprised of a single sort of high-quality metal. However, since they have to be cast individually and might’t be produced en masse like stamped-blade knives, selecting a handcrafted Damascus blade means you may have a knife that appears as implausible because it performs. As Area put it, “It’s about wanting one thing distinctive and that somebody frolicked on. It’s concerning the magnificence and artistry in it and the longing for one thing handmade.”

Decide a Nice Damascus Knife

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Shun Hikari Utility Knife, 6"

Williams Sonoma

damascus knife on wooden cutting board with garlic


In order for you an incredible knife that can be reasonably priced, there are many choices on the market. However, in order for you an incredible knife with the alluring Damascus look, count on to pay greater than you’ll for the same stainless or carbon metal blade. 

When purchasing for a Damascus, search for knives from respected firms and artisans that particularly checklist the sorts of metals used to make every mannequin. Keep away from low-cost, mass-produced knives that tout themselves as Damascus, as they might be subpar steels or single-metal imitations which are superficially etched. One other telltale signal of phony etching is a sample that appears too good or common, moderately than the distinctive, pure variations from sample welding.

Critical Eats / Ashlee Redger

Throughout our years of rigorous testing, the Critical Eats staff has discovered a few excellent Damascus knives of assorted varieties, together with our high-end nakiri pick from Tojiro and a keen-edged petty knife from Shun.

“I don’t assume you’ll be able to point out American Damascus blade smithing with out mentioning Bob Kramer’s title,” Area informed me. The legendary knife maker’s Zwilling collaboration contains choices from a Damascus paring knife to a 10-inch chef’s knife. Area additionally recommends craft producers together with Takamura for high-performance chrome steel Damascus, Halcyon Forge for artisan American-made blades, and Nigara Hamono for unique house-forged patterns utilizing the corporate’s multi-generational data of Japanese sword making. It doesn’t matter what type you’re on the lookout for, you could find a Damascus metal kitchen knife that appears—and cuts—superbly.


What’s Damascus metal?

Damascus metal initially referred to swords comprised of wootz, a high-carbon metal created about two thousand years in the past. The blades have been regarded for his or her power, flexibility, and skill to retain a eager edge, in addition to the distinct water-like sample of the metallic. The unique forging apply died out over time, however we nonetheless use Damascus to explain knives made through sample welding. By folding or twisting layers of various steels collectively in the course of the forging course of, knifemakers can create blades with gorgeous designs paying homage to the unique Damascus type (in addition to different motifs).

Are Damascus metal knives good?

Nowadays, Damascus refers primarily to the forge-welding approach used to create a knife’s distinct look moderately than its capabilities or high quality. Whereas the banded sample of a Damascus knife could make it a stunning choice, the precise efficiency will rely upon the particular alloys which are mixed to type the blade. For instance, Damascus knives made with a number of layers of high-carbon metal shall be extra inflexible and might maintain a pointy edge for longer, whereas fashions made primarily with chrome steel could boring quicker however be much less more likely to rust.

How do you take care of Damascus metal kitchen knives?

Hand-washing is a should for all knives, Damascus or in any other case. Be sure to use a light dish cleaning soap, a non-abrasive sponge, and heat water to get any particles off the knife, then dry it instantly with a gentle fabric. Figuring out what sort of metal layers your Damascus knife incorporates can be useful. If it has layers of high-carbon metal, sprucing the blade commonly with a couple of drops of mineral oil will help defend it in opposition to rusting.

Why We are the Specialists

  • Ashlee Redger is a contributor who has been writing for Critical Eats for nearly two years.
  • She has spent most of her profession in check kitchens, together with America’s Check Kitchen. She additionally managed the check kitchen at a Colorado-based spice firm.
  • Ashlee has reviewed many knives for Critical Eats, together with nakiri knives and boning knives.
  • For this evaluation, she dug into the historical past and composition of Damascus metal and likewise spoke to Craig Area, co-owner of Carbon Knife Co. in Denver, Colorado.

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